I was hired to do work for a Canadian author recently. I will be making over the $600 minimum to require a 1099.

Since this client does not own a business is he required to send me a 1099 at the start of the next year?

Additionally, would this differ based on the country of the client? This case if for a US worker and a CA client but what about cases of:

US client who doesn't own business -> US freelancer

UK client who doesn't own business -> US freelancer

I don't expect an answer from every countries perspective but the US, UK, and CA are where most of my clients/leads contact me from.

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    From a freelancer perspective... it does not matter. Freelancers are not required to include 1099s with their return, only payees are required to file them (if they want the deduction). See here: freelancing.stackexchange.com/questions/4106/… – Scott Apr 16 '16 at 23:35

The client is supposed to fill out the 1099-MISC to report the spending to the IRS. The reason a client is supposed to send you a copy of the 1099-MISC form is so that you have a formal record of the money they paid you to make it easier to do your own taxes. You are required to report the income to the IRS whether or not you received a 1099-MISC for it. I don't know whether someone outside of the US would be required to send the IRS a 1099-MISC if they hired a contractor inside the US.

Only one of the dozens of clients I have worked with has ever bothered to send me a 1099-MISC. You should ask for it directly if it's something you want, but consider yourself lucky if you ever receive one.

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